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Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal correspondence)

(20) The term to possess ‘brother’, aha when you look at the BT, has actually likewise already been augmented, although this mode is additionally used in Turoyo. Hertevin keeps each other ?aha and you can ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

On the other hand, outside NENA, i have almost every other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One instead mystical item that’s attested in most NENA dialects except Sanandaj Religious (which most likely merely a go pit in the facts) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that the term comes about options ql ‘to become crooked’. All the languages utilize the means aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Other term discussed from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) is actually baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted the fresh new Syriac atta in every NENA, not inside Turoyo or Mandaic. It term appears to derive from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to notice that an unequal plural endures during the multiple dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent innovation talked about of the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The alteration out of h so you’re able to x contained in this one word try found in every NENA languages in which the verb are attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Another unanticipated creativity is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the newest models zda?an excellent, zdaya, and you will zdala throughout the various languages. Macuch and you Dating für Gelegenheitssex-Erwachsene will Panoussi (1974, 50) give a prospective derivation regarding Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions for the infixed d are observed in most the newest NENA languages in which the means are attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not totally all of one’s determining popular features of NENA can be found in both Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I do believe the significantly more than will make it clear the NENA dialects display a variety of distinctive traits which can be receive none in the earlier attested different Aramaic nor about most other way of living languages. These features assortment across the domains out of phonology, morphology, therefore the lexicon.

Particularly, most of the dialects out-of NENA agree within the standards 2, nine, fourteen, fifteen, 16, 21, and you may twenty two. Most of the dialects where i have suggestions and agree with requirements 20, 23, and you will twenty four.

Just about Halabja consent during the criteria 8 and you will eleven. Standards six is located in most of the languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Christian.

Even after its interior departments, this new NENA dialects setting an amazingly defined classification, split certainly regarding each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The career of these languages away from NENA soft is out of concern.

The amount that provides is actually mutual all over NENA is specially impressive when we check out the tremendous differences when considering the different languages. The newest dictate off other dialects into NENA has been both deep and greater, as well as the level of mutual intelligibility between dialects can be quite brief. The many common designs dispute highly to possess a common origin out of new NENA dialects, in a choice of just one dialect or in several directly associated dialects. At the same time, we could detect a number of important packages regarding isoglosses and that represent the fresh new boundaries regarding dialect teams.

a) The newest dialect out of Halabja does not show particular important designs hence are located because of most of the rest of the dialects. It does not function a CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it has got zero b(it)- coming marker (10), and has now no third individual just one copula with 1 (11). This can be one particular practical division ranging from dialects of NENA. This means that remaining dialects setting a group whereby designs pass on when you are Halabja stayed unaffected from the her or him.

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